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Barmer (बाडमेर) is a district of Rajasthan state , India . Barmer is the district headquarters. Balotra , Guda Malani, Baytoo, Siwana, Jasol and Chohatan are other major towns.

Barmer is located in the western part of the state forming a part of the Thar Desert. The district is surrounded by Jaisalmer district in the north, Jalore district in the south, Pali district and Jodhpur district in the east and Pakistan in the west.
The total area of the district is 28387 km². The district is located between 24,58’ to 26, 32’N Latitudes and 70, 05’ to 72, 52’ E Longitudes.
According to the Indian census 2001, the Barmer district's population is 1,963,758. The population constitutes 1,035,813 male, while females are 927,945. Hence sex ratio is 896 females per 1000 males, while density of population 69 persons per km². Literacy rate is 59.65%. Urban population is 145,241, while rural population is 1,818,517.
People and Culture
Barmer district is part of the Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert. Like all other districts in the desert region, Barmer is known for its folk music and dance. The Bhopas (priest singers) are found in Barmer, who compose music in honour of the deities of the region and its war heroes. The other folk musicians come from a community called the Muslim Dholis (drummers) for most of whom this is the only means of livelihood. Langas and Manganiars are the some of these communities.
Barmer is famous for its carved wooden furniture and hand block printing industry. This area is best visited to gain an insight into the desert life and admire the decorative skills of the simple village folk. The villagers have some of the most beautiful mud huts that are decorated with delicate folk motifs.
Jasol, Juna Burmer, Khed, kiradu, Mallonath Fair (Cattle Fair), Meva Nagar ( Nakoda ), Kanana (sheetla fair) Neemari are the prime attractions of the district. Tilwara cattle fair is a popular fair visited by thousands of tourists every year.
People speak mostly Rajasthani Language, while Hindi is the official language here. English language also run here as an extra language and to help the tourists.
There are total 4 Sub-divisions in the district and 8 Tehsils : Barmer , Baytoo , Chohtan , Gudha Malani, Pachpadra, Ramsar, Sheo and Siwana. Total 1941 villages are there in the Barmer District, comes under Eight Panchayat Samitis. Some of the villages are Hemaguda, Dhorimanna , Pachpadra, Jasol, Shiv, Chohtan, Sindari, Nakoda, Munabao, Ramsar, Bishala, Jharwa - (Rauaniyo Thoriyo Ki Dhani), Chooli, Bhadresh, Samdari, Baitu, Ranigaon, Gudamalani, Gunga, Sedwa, Kalyanpur, Gadra Road, Kavas, Mokalsar, Padru, Sanawara, Siwana, Parlu, kanana etc.
Oil in Thar
Presently the Barmer district is in news due to its large Oil basin. The British exploration company Cairn Energy is going to start the production soon in the year 2009 on the large scale. Mangala, Bhagyam and Aishwariya are the major oil fields in the district. This is India's biggest oil discovery in 22 years. Cairn works in partnership with state owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC).[1] Cairn holds 70% in the field, while state-run ONGC holds the remaining 30%. In March 2010, Cairn increased oil potential from this field to 6.5 billion barrels of oil – from an earlier estimate of 4 billion barrels.[2]
2006 floods
In August 2006, the usually drought prone Barmer district was hit by flash floods. As of August 27, 2006, 103 deaths had been reported in Rajasthan due to floods. Many people (about 1200) died in this flood. The village of Kawas is still under the effect of flood. The water level as on 06th-March-2007 is about 3 feet to 10 feet in Kawas. People are living in Camps. The loss included the death of 75,194 cattle and damage to Kharif crop worth Rs. 1,300 crores.[3]. Many villages in the district remained submerged under water for few days.
Underground Airbase
Uttarlai military airbase is situated in Barmer district, Uttarlai is India's first under ground airbase. India can counter any insurgency into India by Pakistan. The Battle of Longewala (December 4, 1971 - December 5, 1971) was one of the first major engagements in the Western Sector during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, fought between assaulting Pakistani forces and Indian defenders at the Indian border post of Longewala, in the Thar Desert of the Rajasthan state in India.
The Indian infantry company (reinforced) was left with the choices of either attempting to hold out until reinforced, or fleeing on foot from a mechanised infantry Pakistani force, choosing the former. The company officer commanding ensured that all his assets were correctly employed, and made the most use of his strong defensive position, and weaknesses created by errors in enemy tactics. He was also fortunate in that an Indian Air Force forward air controller was able to secure and direct aircraft in support of the post's defence until reinforcements arrived six hours later.
The Pakistani commanders made several bad decisions, including failure of strategic intelligence to foresee availability of Indian strike aircraft in the Longewala area from Uttarlai air-force base as Barmer is a border town.